Stewart Brand, publisher of the Whole Earth Catalog from 1968 to 1974, acknowledged the influence of Marshall McLuhan (see 2nd posting below this one) and Radical Software, a historic video magazine started by Beryl Korot, Phyllis Gershuny, and Ira Schneider that first appeared in Spring of 1970, soon after low-cost portable video equipment became available to artists and other potential videomakers.
Alternative Media: Software and Video in 1970s Counterculture
Between 1970 and 1974 the Raindance Corporation published eleven issues of the journal, which are now compiled in an online archive.
It was a DIY [do-it-yourself] venture aiming to disseminate discoveries of any and all possibilities video had to offer, not just for art, but also for activism, documentary, science, psychology, and play. Its distribution forged the consciousness and communication of disparate collectives across the country. The title of this exhibition refers to a system set up at Antioch College in Ohio by which people could send in their own videos to be included in an ever-expanding archive, along with a blank tape to be filled with other programs from the collection, creating a kind of grass-roots library that embodied the ideology of a movement.
Fueled by the teachings of Marshall McLuhan, Radical Software railed against the deeper message of that 1950s family portrait: that the television at its center was broadcasting the same corporate media message into every American living room, a fixed perspective consumed by the masses as truth. One video at Pioneer Works, “Some Short Scenes in the Life of Radical Software,” shows the printing and distribution of the journal. Beryl Korot, one of the journal’s founders, explains to the camera that they believe television can be much “more than a radio with a screen,” or the “feedback of feedback of information.” The journal’s agenda was to promote independent, pirate television, and gave down-to-earth information about equipment and how-to’s in all levels of production. In the videos we see mechanics laid bare – microphones poke into many shots and you hear directions and the voices of people behind the camera. Emphasis is always on the medium and its practicality.
Read the rest of this article at: http://tinyurl.com/lp546zb
A great example of McLuhan’s “Narcissus as Narcosis” ( as are “selfies” especially). My thanks to Malcolm Dean for sharing this……….Alex
“The Greek myth of Narcissus is directly concerned with a fact of human experience, as the word Narcissus indicates. It is from the Greek word narcosis or numbness. The youth Narcissus mistook his own reflection in the water for another person. This extension of himself by mirror numbed his perceptions until he became the servomechanism of his own extended or repeated image. The nymph Echo tried to win his love with fragments of his own speech, but in vain. He was numb. He had adapted to his extension of himself and had become a closed system.
Now the point of this myth is the fact that men at once become fascinated by any extension of themselves in any material other than themselves….”
- The Gadget Lover, Narcissus as Narcosis, Chapter 4, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964), p.41, MIT Press ed.
Hi, yes, it’s PeachesHang on, I’ve hit a bump…
See more pictures here http://tinyurl.com/kz3okqn
The Marshall McLuhan Official website, which is managed by Michael McLuhan, has posted three films focused on Marshall McLuhan, that have either not been available on the Internet before or have not been readily accessible. The films are: 1. The Communications Revolution (1960), 2. This is Marshall McLuhan: The Medium is the Massage (1967), and Picnic in Space (1973). They can be found on the Marshall McLuhan site here: http://www.marshallmcluhan.com/films/ . Noting that the latter is available on YouTube, Michael McLuhan informs me that all of the online versions he’s aware of are conversions from VHS, whereas the one posted on his site is a direct conversion from the 16 mm film, making it much cleaner.
1. The Communications Revolution (1960) is a panel exchange between four academics at the third annual Conference on the Humanities on October 28-29, 1960 at Ohio State University: Edgar Dale, Marshall McLuhan, Gilbert Seldes and Keith Tyler. McLuhan however, already well-known for his views on electric media, figures as the central focus of the conference, the general theme of which was Popular/Mass Culture: American Perspectives. The text of this panel discussion can be found in Understanding Me: Lectures & Interviews (2003), pp. 34-43.
2. This is Marshall McLuhan: The Medium is the Massage (1967) - Everyone interested in the thought of Marshall McLuhan knows about the book he collaborated on with graphic designer Quintin Fiore titled The Medium is the Massage (1967) and most are familiar with the LP that came out around the same time with the same title. But likely few are aware of the film that was distributed that same year (1967) by McGraw-Hill Education under the same title. The only public showing this 54 minute film appears to have had was on NBC TV on Sunday, March 19, 1967. There was a 16 mm film of it made that was sold to mostly academic libraries that was probably viewed (and forgotten) by some university students in a small number of higher education institutions.
The TV Guide entry for this film for March 19, 1967 describes it as follows: Marshall McLuhan discusses his controversial communications theories in this experimental documentary produced by Oscar-winner Ernest Pintoff and Guy Fraumeni.
The basic of McLuhan’s philosophy is “the medium is the message” – how we communicate is more important than what we communicate. Pintoff and Fraumeni have used McLuhan’s latest book, “he Medium is the Massage,” to provide a kaleidoscopic illustration.
The medium is the massage? McLuhan says that the title is “intended to draw attention to the fact that a medium … does something to people. It takes hold of them … it massages them.”
Newspaper and magazine headlines , TV and movie film clips, and still photographs are blended with an interview to provide insight into such McLuhan concepts as “hot” and “cool” communications media.
Actor Edward Binns narrates.
3. Picnic in Space (1973) is a rare film featuring McLuhan and his long time cohort, Harley Parker, a Canadian artist and scholar. The film features McLuhan and Parker’s ruminations on a wide variety of topics; including ‘space’ and its properties, jazz, language, and art. Shot in 1967, the film captures the experimental spirit of the time; with scenes of contemplative pastoral idyll intercut with bold, minimalist animation, pop art, pastiche, and a wonderfully strange electronic soundtrack courtesy of visionary American composer, Morton Subotnick. (http://tinyurl.com/pdpz489 )
See all three films at http://www.marshallmcluhan.com/films/
Whole Earth Catalog, spring 1969
In 1968, Stewart Brand founded the Whole Earth Catalog. Brand’s goals were to make a variety of tools accessible to newly dispersed counterculture communities, back-to-the-land households, and innovators in the fields of technology, design, and architecture, and to create a community meeting-place in print. The catalogue quickly developed into a wide-ranging reference for new living spaces, sustainable design, and experimental media and community practices. After only a few years of publication it exploded in popularity, becoming a formidable cultural phenomenon.
Books, selected and described by the editorial staff and organized in sections titled Understanding Whole Systems, Shelter and Land Use, Communication, and Community, were the primary resources the Whole Earth Catalog offered. The following are from an exhibition of printed matter in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art Library surveying these publications that summarizes the history of the catalogue project. The selection reflects the publication’s focus on experimental ideas in design and technology and the dialogue between theorists and practitioners these ideas raised.
In Understanding Media, McLuhan surveys changes in perception affected by evolving media environments, from early print culture to modern television. For McLuhan, the media environment of the electronic age demanded radically new pedagogy to help young minds navigate these new conditions. Brand’s Whole Earth Catalog, influenced by McLuhan’s work, promoted experiments in new media as responsive to these shifts in culture, offering new possibilities for teaching and learning for an electronic age.
Marshall McLuhan. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (New American Library, 1964).
Advertisement for Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man in the Whole Earth Catalog
Culture Is Our Business
The pages of Marshall McLuhan’s Culture is Our Business resemble a slide show, coupling images borrowed from print and television advertisements with excerpts from McLuhan’s writing in an extended meditation and critical discussion of the state of commercial imagery and media. McLuhan was a central thinker on the subject, and his writings were of primary influence for a younger generation of new media practitioners.
Back (left) and front (right) covers of Culture Is Our Business, Marshall McLuhan (McGraw-Hill, 1970).
See http://tinyurl.com/3lnfjy4 for more from the The Museum of Modern Art Library Whole Earth Catalog collection.
Appreciating Marshall McLuhan
Putting the spotlight on the influential media theorist and University of Manitoba alum
By Tom Ingram – November 24, 2014
In its hundred-year history, the Manitoban has been the first step on the way to a professional career for numerous writers. But there is one who leaves them all behind, whose association with the Manitoban gives us instant respectability even with those who sneer at the student press. I speak, of course, of Marshall McLuhan.
McLuhan did his undergrad and master’s in English at the University of Manitoba in the late 1920s and early 30s [B.A. in English & Philosophy (1932) and M.A in English (1934)]. During this time he was a contributor at the Manitoban, writing articles on literary and political issues and editing the literary supplements.
McLuhan grew up to be a new breed of academic. Though very traditionally trained in English literature—he did his doctoral work at Cambridge, tracing the history of grammar, logic, and rhetoric up to Thomas Nashe—his main interests lay elsewhere. For McLuhan, the most significant cultural artifacts were the popular media to which the academy was mostly blind. These interests were revealed in his first published book: The Mechanical Bride: Folklore of Industrial Man.
In this book, McLuhan analyzed newspapers, comic strips, and especially advertisements. His analyses display considerable erudition, but McLuhan did not develop his points along traditional lines. Rather than making any kind of linear argument, he wrote mini-essays that can be read in any order, each of which gives a different perspective on the nature of media and social construction in an age of technology and mass communication.
The result is a fascinating read in its own right, somewhat reminiscent of Montaigne – if Montaigne used 1950s slang. More interesting than the unusual form is the way McLuhan cuts to the core of the collective psyche of industrial capitalism.
The title essay is an analysis of an ad for stockings featuring a woman’s legs standing on a podium with the rest of her body out of frame. McLuhan argues that this ad portrays the legs as interchangeable parts – a cultural obsession in industrial society, he says. “Ads like these not only express but also encourage that strange dissociation of sex not only from the human person, but even from the unity of the body.”
More generally, he says, a pattern in popular culture and advertisements is “the widely occurring cluster image of sex, technology, and death which constitutes the mystery of the mechanical bride.” Advertisers take these images and use them to turn the ordinary sex drive into “a metaphysical enticement, a cerebral itch, an abstract torment.”
McLuhan thought that the extent to which our basic attitudes and beliefs are constructed by advertisers rendered direct resistance futile. The miasma of media and commercials constitutes an education system in itself, he believed, and it has much more money and power behind it than academia. Therefore, it is necessary to use pop culture’s weight against itself by presenting, studying, and reinterpreting the powerful images it creates. The best way to approach these things, according to McLuhan, is with amusement, not anger.
We live in a world of even more advanced technology than McLuhan’s 50s, operating faster and on a larger scale. Popular culture has fragmented into a million pieces. Advertisers are sophisticated and intrusive. Our political media is louder and larger than ever but seems strangely arbitrary and pointless. In such a world, the insights of McLuhan become even more significant.
We have reprinted for your reading pleasure an article McLuhan wrote for the Manitoban in 1934, entitled “Morticians and cosmeticians.” In addition to being a marvellous early example of his allusive and elusive writing style, it deals with issues related to the topics addressed in The Mechanical Bride. (Source: http://tinyurl.com/kgguzek ).
This article first appeared in the March 2, 1934 edition of the Manitoban. The advertisement which inspired it is, unfortunately, lost to history.
The November 9, 2014 issue of the venerable Times Literary Supplement (TLS) published a mostly positive review of B.W. Powe’s recent study of McLuhan and Frye, although I detect a measure of possibly colonial condescension from the literary voice of the onetime imperial global empire; that’s okay. They can’t yet shake the habit…………AlexK
In his subversive collaborative “anti-book” From Cliche to Archetype (1970), Marshall McLuhan described his University of Toronto colleague Northrop Frye as “like a hedgehog”, building “humourless, water-tight systems that instead of answering the problem or even illuminating it, block access to it”. He criticized Frye’s major work, Anatomy of Criticism (1957), for failing to acknowledge preliterate oral traditions or post-literate pop culture: “Working entirely from the medium of the printed word, Professor Frye has developed a classification of literary forms that ignores not only the print process as it created a special type of writer and audience, but all other media as well”. Frye, for his part, wrote in The Modern Century (1967): ‘The McLuhan cult, or more accurately the McLuhan rumour, is the latest of the illusions of progress: it tells us that a number of new media are about to bring in a new form of civilization all by themselves, merely by existing”. He adds: “This is not all of what a serious and most original writer is trying to say, yet Professor McLuhan lends himself partly to this interpre tation by throwing so many of his insights into a deterministic form”.
The Northrop Frye statue at Victoria College, University of Toronto
Powe studied under McLuhan and Frye in the 1970s. His long and intimate engagement with their work has culminated in a rich, subtly argued book which offers many first hand insights:
Yes, McLuhan was dramatic in his flair and verbal flourishes; Frye seemed passively genteel in comparison. But Frye could quietly and steadily compel the attention of hundreds in a lecture hall ….They loved teaching others and passing on their readings and discoveries. Frye’s pride was ruled over by his exacting scholarship and pedagogical precision in the classroom. McLuhan’s pride was much more untrammelled. His dissident disposition led to endless upsets with perceived adversaries”.
He convincingly proves, though, that the extent of their interaction has been underestimated. While McLuhan’s attacks on Frye are frequently cited, his praise for his colleague’s work tends to be forgotten. In 1967, for example, he commented in a public lecture that Frye was “extraordinary, with his frontiersmanship between the world of literature and the unconscious”. The two men influenced even as they resisted each other.
Marshall McLuhan, from the William McElcheran sculpture located outside the Kelly Library at St. Michael’s College.
Although Frye evidently found McLuhan’s style histrionic, he fully acknowledged the significance of his achievements, and worked to achieve recognition for them. Frye chaired the committee that awarded Canada’s most prestigious book prize, the Governor General’s Award, to McLuhan for The Gutenberg Galaxy in 1962. On a more personal level, he referred fondly in 1981 to “my late friend and much beloved colleague”.
Unfortunately the TLS only allows its reviews and articles to be read on its online site by subscribers, who require a login. But, you can read the entire review here: TLS_Review_ Powe .
Sandy Pearlman: University of Toronto, Marshall McLuhan Centenary Fellow, Dean’s Professor for Interdisciplinary Innovation Producer: Blue Oyster Cult, Clash, Dream Syndicate, Dictators, et al
Public Lecture: Faculty of Information, University of Toronto December 3, 2014, 4:30-6pm, Bissel 538
Grateful Dead, Grayfolded, Vinyl and Virtual: John Oswald Unwinds the Toxic Consequences of Digital.
John Oswald/The Grateful Dead (1996), Grayfolded: A completely unique and signal instance of very late 20th century music invention, in describing it to my students I call it “Dream Music of the Information Overlords”.
What should, would or could a recording of a rock Symphony sound like, if it were created (and/or assembled) in the very late 20th Century, and, somehow simultaneously incorporated into its composition, well over a hundred different performances, well separated in time, place and space, of, an originally folk ballad based song, “Dark Star”, which the Grateful Dead first recorded as a 3 minute+ single, and, subsequently turned into a vast long form performance piece which essentially became their most signifying jam base music for most of the 30 years following its original composition?
Furthermore, creating, in this case meant inventing the very means of composition of this quasi-symphony, and, inventing, meant dreaming the whole thing up, since, creating a music/information object of such magnitude was previously possible only in a dream. Impossible, that is to say, until it was actually accomplished, by the musician/composer/technology designer John Oswald, in the form of his Grayfolded, a rock symphony in all but name.
Grayfolded was originally a 2 CD set that virtually recomposes and reassembles numerous recordings of “Dark Star” made by the Grateful Dead under any and all circumstances. Oswald’s work utilizes samples culled from an original ‘database’ of over 200 recordings made over a twenty-six year period. The 100+ performances, eventually chosen as working materials, were sampled in the early 1990s, by means of technology mostly invented by Oswald. In point of fact Grayfolded was impossible until Oswald “dreamt up” the technical means to make it possible: Long before the invention of ProTools, Digital Performer, Logic etc, Grayfolded was impossible until Oswald “dreamt up” the radical technical means to make it possible. As a function of this new Digital technology, Oswald accomplished invention of a radical new sonority, no less than Phil Spector had some 30 years earlier.
Grayfolded is the most dense simultaneous application to date of the theoretics of Plenum Effects; Saturation vs. Coherence, and, the Dialectic of Saturation and Coherence; Horizontal and Vertical Iteration; Distributed Surfacing of Occulted Thematics; etc: i.e., all the core drivers of music as simultaneous Technical and Technological Ecstasy. Recently the means by which music is created, produced and distributed has become the venue for a huge (but) counterintuitive boom in Analog technologies, including the shockingly profitable resurrection of the Vinyl LP. In a de facto recognition of Digital toxicity: The Analog Strikes Back. And now in a truly signal instance of belling the (china) cat, Grayfolded has just been repurposed by Oswald and released as a 3 Disc Vinyl set. Dream Music of the Information Overlords, or, of the Information Overload? And where does all this leave the Identity of Being and Knowledge anyway?
Currently Dean’s Professor for Interdisciplinary Innovation and a Marshall McLuhan Centenary Fellow at the University of Toronto . Until recently the Schulich Distinguished Chair at McGill University. A Woodrow Wilson Fellow in the History of Ideas at Brandeis.
A New School Fellow in Sociology and Anthropology. Over the last few years, at McGill and, the University of Toronto, Pearlman, has taught and created, often in collaboration with Dean Don McLean of McGill, and currently, Toronto, a boatload of provocative new courses distributed amongst the Music, English, Religious Studies, Law and Management Faculties. Relentless brainstormer on the Future of Media in general, and, the ever tightening embrace of Music by Technology and Technology by Music in particular.
Member, National Recording Preservation Board (NRPB) of the Library of Congress. Producer, creator, songwriter, manager and theorist for many of the most important bands and musical trends of the last 30 years: Blue Oyster Cult, Clash, Black Sabbath, Dictators, Mahavishnu Orchestra, Pavlov’s Dog, Dream Syndicate, Space Team Electra. In this capacity, he is variously blamed and/or lauded for the launch of such cultural trends as Heavy Metal, Occult Rock, Goth, Punk, New Wave.In all formats his recordings have sold in the range of 40 million copies. Described by the Billboard Producer’s Directory as “the Hunter Thompson of rock, a gonzo producer of searing intellect and vast vision.” Gonzo enough to be played by Christopher Walken in Saturday Night Live’s awesome skit on the making of “The Reaper” (which Pearlman produced for Blue Oyster Cult).
Professor Thomas Farrell has provided an interesting commentary proposing that Marshall McLuhan was influenced by the Canadian Jesuit scholar Bernard Lonergan in his writing of Understanding Media (1964), regarded by many as his most important book. Specifically, he writes below that McLuhan “almost certainly had been influenced by Lonergan’s inward turn of consciousness [in his Insight: A Study of Human Understanding (1957)], at least to a certain extent”. Dr. Farrell is correct in asserting that no McLuhan scholar appears to have explored the possible connection between these two intellectual giants, who were located physically on the University of Toronto campus at the same time, between 1965 and 1975, when Lonergan was at St. Regis College; the latter is a short block south of St. Michael’s College and McLuhan’s Centre for Culture and Technology. Lonergan isn’t even mentioned in the two biographies of McLuhan (Marchand, 1989) and Gordon (1997) and he is mentioned in only one published letter, this one to another Catholic Jesuit intellectual, Walter Ong, dated Sept 21, 1957. In the postscript of that letter, McLuhan writes: “Find much sense in Bern. Lonergan’s Insight” (Letters, 1987, p. 251). Now another Jesuit influence on McLuhan that is clear is that of Teilhard de Chardin, SJ, whose name is mentioned several times in McLuhan’s writings. Both Marchand and Gordon had access to the McLuhan Archive in the National Library of Canada and spent abundant time there; it seems that Lonergan isn’t mentioned sufficiently enough in McLuhan’s unpublished letters and papers to warrant being mentioned in either biography, as de Chardin is, to warrant mentioning as a possible influence. Still, perhaps the possible influence of Lonergan on McLuhan bears further investigation…….AlexK ***** Contextualizing McLuhan’s UNDERSTANDING MEDIA, November 15, 2014 – By Thomas J. Farrell This review is from: Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man : Critical Edition (Hardcover) appended to Amazon.com’s review – see http://tinyurl.com/o3lo4qx . On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of Marshall McLuhan’s book UNDERSTANDING MEDIA (1964), I would like to point out something about McLuhan that I consider to be very important for understanding the inward turn he took in writing UNDERSTANDING MEDIA. In the late 1950s, McLuhan carefully worked his way through Bernard Lonergan’s book INSIGHT: A STUDY OF HUMAN UNDERSTANDING (1957; 5th ed. 1992). Lonergan’s book is a profound philosophical study. (McLuhan had no formal training in philosophy. In philosophy, he was an autodidact.) [Actually, McLuhan’s 1933 Honours B.A. at the University of Manitoba was in English & Philosophy]. Because Lonergan’s book INSIGHT: A STUDY OF HUMAN UNDERSTANDING is wide-ranging, I should point out that Mark D. Morelli and Elizabeth A. Morelli have perceptively selected the central parts of Lonergan’s treatise in their edited book THE LONERGAN READER (University of Toronto Press, 1997, pages 29-359).Briefly, in his inward turn to consciousness, Lonergan identified and discusses what I will style here as moments of consciousness: (1) sensory input and imagination, (2) intellectual processing of sensory input and imagination, (3) rational processing (judging and adjudicating), and (4) decision-making and taking action. Lonergan claims that his account of human consciousness constitutes a generalized empirical way of proceeding to think about human thinking.Now, Buddhist meditation and some other forms of non-imagistic meditation aim to transcend consciousness. No doubt the experience of transcending consciousness can contribute to providing us with a certain distance from consciousness. Walter J. Ong, S.J. (1912-2003), liked to say that we need both proximity (closeness) and distance to understand anything.
However, as a Jesuit, Lonergan had been trained in the Jesuit tradition of imagistic meditation - deriving from the founder of the Jesuits, Ignatius Loyola. As a result of his Jesuit training in imagistic meditation, Lonergan was primed to examine human consciousness. In his philosophical treatise he establishes enough distance from human consciousness that he is able to understand how it works.
Now, McLuhan famously declared that he was concerned with percepts. Percepts involve the moment of consciousness that Lonergan refers to as sensory input and imagination. In all honesty, I have to say here that paying attention to percepts sounds remarkably similar to the spirit of imagistic meditation practiced by Jesuits. (I am not claiming that McLuhan was familiar with the Jesuit tradition of imagistic meditation, because I don’t know if he was.)
Bernard Lonergan, S.J. (1904-1984), was a Canadian, as was Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980). At the time when McLuhan carefully worked his way through Lonergan’s philosophical study in the late 1950s, McLuhan was teaching English at St. Mike’s [St. Michael’s College], a Roman Catholic institution in the University of Toronto. (In the mid-1930s, McLuhan had converted to Roman Catholicism.)
In the 1950s and for decades earlier, St. Mike’s was one of the two leading centers in North America of Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy. At the time and for decades earlier, St. Louis University, the Jesuit university in St. Louis, Missouri, was the other leading center of Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy in North America. Earlier in his professional career, McLuhan taught English at St. Louis University, as he worked on his 1943 Cambridge University doctoral dissertation.
Centuries earlier, the Jesuits had joined the Dominicans in promoting the thought of Thomas Aquinas in philosophy and theology. In his Jesuit training, Lonergan had become an expert in the thought of Thomas Aquinas in philosophy and theology.
However, because of the extraordinary status of Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy in the Roman Catholic Church before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965), many non-Catholics in North America considered Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy to be somehow “religious” – or more specifically, somehow tainted by religion. Oftentimes, non-Catholics in North America used this patently false claim to dismiss Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy. This tendency to dismiss Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy was especially pronounced in the United States, where the American prestige culture had been dominated for centuries by white Anglo-Saxon Protestants who tended to be anti-Catholic in spirit.
When Harvard-educated Senator John F. Kennedy was narrowly elected president of the United States in 1960, he was the first Irish-American Roman Catholic to be elected to that office. In the 1960 presidential campaign, he had to defend his personal religious affiliation because it was a stigma at that time for that office.
Because of the still strong anti-Catholic bias in the 1960s, McLuhan was not likely to present himself publicly as a Roman Catholic who was seriously interested in Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy – or as a Roman Catholic who had carefully worked his way through Lonergan’s monumental book INSIGHT: A STUDY OF HUMAN UNDERSTANDING.
Now, the subtitle of Lonergan’s book advertises its central focus on human understanding.
The main title of McLuhan’s book is UNDERSTANDING MEDIA.
Granted, as an English professor, McLuhan was familiar with Brooks and Warren’s influential book UNDERSTANDING POETRY. (McLuhan and Brooks were friends.)
After McLuhan had carefully worked his way through Lonergan’s monumental philosophical treatise, he almost certainly had been influenced by Lonergan’s inward turn of consciousness, at least to a certain extent.
When we turn our attention to McLuhan’s publications before 1964, we do not find anything remotely approximating his inward turn of consciousness in UNDERSTANDING MEDIA.
But McLuhan’s inward turn to consciousness in UNDERSTANDING MEDIA (1964) threw many readers for a loop, to put it mildly. Nevertheless, it sold remarkably well, and it helped catapult the author to extraordinary celebrity. (However, I myself do not find all of McLuhan’s analyses in UNDERSTANDING MEDIA perceptive.)
Of course Lonergan’s INSIGHT: A STUDY OF HUMAN UNDERSTANDING (1957) also threw many readers for a loop, to put it mildly. But Lonergan’s philosophical treatise was not as widely read as McLuhan’s UNDERSTANDING MEDIA was.
Now, if you want to argue that McLuhan was not influenced by carefully working his way through Lonergan’s treatise, you are of course free to claim this and to advance this claim.
However, if you want to contextualize McLuhan’s UNDERSTANDING MEDIA, you should not overlook Lonergan’s philosophical treatise.
As I have noted, both McLuhan and Lonergan were Canadians. Certain followers of McLuhan are also Canadian, just as certain followers of Lonergan are. However, as far as I know, the influence of Lonergan’s INSIGHT on McLuhan’s UNDERSTANDING MEDIA has not been explored.
As far as I know, none of McLuhan’s followers have never explored the influence of Lonergan’s philosophical treatise on him – perhaps because they are not familiar with Lonergan’s philosophical treatise.
Conversely, as far as I know, none of Lonergan’s followers have ever paid any attention to how his philosophical treatise influenced McLuhan’s UNDERSTANDING MEDIA.
For this reason, I think it is appropriate to explore this here. (See Dr. Farrell’s review on Amazon.com)Addendum: As you may know, Marshall McLuhan explicitly indicates in one of his published letters that that he is reading Lonergan’s INSIGHT. The letter is to Walter Ong. I don’t recall the exact date on the letter, but it was in the late 1950s.[The letter was to Walter Ong, S.J. dated Sept 21, 1957; see p. 251 of McLuhan’s published letters.] Marshall McLuhan somehow enlisted a graduate student in English named Donald Theall to undertake reading Lonergan’s INSIGHT along with him in the late 1950s [Donald Theall was McLuhan’s first doctoral candidate.] According to Donald Theall, who is now deceased, they read some of Lonergan’s book and then met and discussed what they had read, before they proceeded to read the next part. From my memory of my email exchange with Donald Theall, I don’t remember if they read a chapter at a time, or perhaps more than a chapter at a time. Lonergan’s book is lengthy. So if they read only one chapter at a time, they would have proceeded slowly through the book, and they would have had a number of meetings to discuss the part they had read. In light of their read-discuss way of proceeding, I would not be surprised if each of them marked his copy as he read the assigned part of the book. As you may know, Lonergan was a local big shot among Roman Catholics in the Toronto area in the 1950s when his book INSIGHT was published. So Marshall McLuhan probably heard about Lonergan’s book from other faculty members at St. Mike’s. However, I believe that by 1957 Lonergan was teaching at the Gregorian University, the Jesuit university in Rome. [The Bernard Lonergan Archive provides the following: “He taught at the Jesuit Seminary in Toronto from 1947 to 1953, and then at the Gregorian University from 1953 to 1965 …. From 1965 to 1975 he was Professor of Theology at Regis College, Toronto.” ( http://www.bernardlonergan.com/biography.php )]
Students and scholars of Marshall McLuhan will be happy to learn that the modest looking typescript document depicted above can now be downloaded as a PDF, thanks to Professor Norm Friesen, presently teaching at UBC. According to Terrence Gordon, McLuhan’s second biographer, McLuhan referred to the project as “Vat 69″, the name of a popular brand of blended Scotch whisky of the time; in effect the project was a “cauldron where he tossed in as many ideas as he could seize, hoping eventually to turn his study into a book”. That book of course, published four years later, was Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). NAEB had contracted McLuhan to design a method and syllabus for teaching high school students about the nature and effects of media, old media, as well as new media. McLuhan was using the phrase “new media” decades before its latest incarnation as a term for digital media and the Internet.
Noting that the “Canadian philosopher’s ideas prepared the way for a new way of teaching”, Moody (2002) traces McLuhan’s influence on the teaching of media literacy to his curriculum written for the National Association of Educational Broadcasters (NAEB), under contract with the Office of Education, US Department of Health, Education and Welfare (McLuhan, 1960). She writes: “There… he introduced his basic theme that media — speech, print, photography, telegraphy, telephone, film, radio, television — all function as extensions of the human organism to increase power and speed”. McLuhan explained his purpose in creating that curriculum as follows; it’s purpose was:
- to explain the character of a dozen media, illustrating the dynamic symmetries of their operation on man and society,
- to do this in a syllabus usable in secondary schools. (McLuhan, 1960, p 4)
McLuhan explained that secondary schools were chosen because their students had not yet acquired any vested interest in acquired knowledge, had great experience of media, but no habits of observation or critical awareness, “yet they are the best teachers of media to teachers, who are otherwise unreachable” (1960, p. 4). The last comment is especially pertinent today. This appears to have been the very first media literacy curriculum ever written, predating later work in Britain and Australia in the late 1960s and ‘70s.
Gordon, T.G., Ed. (1994). The critical edition of ‘Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man’. Corte Madera, CA: Gingko Press.
McLuhan, H.M. (1960, June 30). Report on project in understanding new media. Washington, DC: National Association of Educational Broadcasters.
Moody, K. (2002). Marshall McLuhan: The revolution is – media! Center for Media Literacy. Retrieved from http://www.medialit.org/reading- room/marshall-mcluhan-revolution-media .
*****McLuhan’s 1960 Report on Project in Understanding New Media Posted on November 18, 2014 by friesenn
This two-volume text was commissioned by the National Association of Educational Broadcasters. In the opening paragraph, McLuhan refers to it as “Project 69,” and memorably explains its purpose as follows:
Project 69 in Understanding Media proposed to provide an approach to media and a syllabus for teaching the nature and effects of media in secondary schools. A new tactic was used, namely to consider not so much the constituents nor the “content” of media, as their effects. I therefore raise the question at once: “Why have the effects of media, whether speech, writing, photography or radio, been overlooked by social observers through the past 3500 years of the Western world?”
In the cryptic note at the top right (on p. 2), McLuhan writes to Harley Parker, with whom he later co-authored Through the Vanishing Point: Space in Poetry and Painting (1968) and Counterblast (1969). Parker also appears with McLuhan in the 28 min 1969 filmPicnic in Space, directed by Bruce Bacon.
This text reflects McLuhan’s then-coalescing thought as it relates to both education and to multiple media forms; and the text serves as relatively direct and clearly-written precursor for the 1964 Understanding Media.
The full text of this report is available for downloading at http://tinyurl.com/om7eky2 .
This article from Marketing, the “Advertising, Media & Public Relations” magazine of Canada since 1908, was published on the centenary of Marshall McLuhan’s birth. It’s true that Marshall McLuhan’s ideas are of special interest to these professions of persuasion and selling, however I have no idea why this writer calls these key McLuhan ideas “predictions”. Only the fourth one is especially predictive…….AlexK
Marketing looks at five of the media prophet’s predictions through a 2011 lens.
By Matt Semansky – July 21, 2011
Marshall McLuhan would have turned 100 today. Had he made it to the century mark, the Edmonton-born media and culture prophet would have celebrated the milestone in an age when digital technology has proven many of his boldest predictions to be accurate.
More than three decades after his death, the man who gave the world aphorisms such as “the medium is the message” and “the global village” continues to exert influence over academics, culture warriors and anyone trying to make sense of the interplay between society and technology.
McLuhan is of particular interest to the advertising community, having turned many an erudite phrase about the industry in books, lectures and interviews. He once declared that advertising was “the greatest art form of the 20th century,” but his views on the subject were more complex and critical than that oft-repeated quote would suggest. McLuhan did, after all, also describe advertising as “an environmental striptease for a world of abundance” and posited that the primary product advertising promoted was itself.
McLuhan chastened the ad world while acknowledging its increasingly important role in shaping society. It is partly for this reason that he remains such an influence for marketing, creative and media big thinkers around the world. More crucially, though, his striking ability to predict the future is what gives McLuhan such posthumous currency. Although he died long before the age of the internet, his theories are alive in the Web 2.0 world of social media and smartphones.
In honour of McLuhan’s centennial birthday, Marketing looks at five predictions that look especially prescient when viewed in 2011’s rear-view mirror.
•The medium is the message
The most famous and frequently misunderstood of McLuhanisms, it remains as true today as it was in the age of television. McLuhan’s point was that the impact of the medium itself is more significant than the content it carries; that each medium, from light bulbs to computers, conveys a message to its users. The internet, for example, isn’t important because of its endless supply of content, but because it has created a world where we expect content to be endlessly, immediately there.
•The new electronic interdependence recreates the world in the image of a global village
The term “global village” could reasonably apply to the way the internet has condensed a vast world, allowing for the immediate transmission of information from one side of the globe to the other, keeping people connected in spite of geographical distance. McLuhan was specifically referring to electronic media shaping collective, “tribe”-based identities. And today? Just look at the way Twitter and Facebook users organize themselves into groups of followers or how consumers receive messages from their daily deal tribe on their phones.
•We shape our tools and thereafter our tools shape us
Mark Zuckerberg created Facebook (or so one version of the story goes). But anyone who came of age or was born after his invention will be in some way “created” by it, or whatever social networking platform succeeds it. We now have meaningful interactions with people and brands online as well as in “reality.” Future generations won’t distinguish between the two.
•The age of automation is going to be the age of ‘do it yourself’
The truth of this prediction has been especially inconvenient for owners of traditional media, such as newspapers and magazines, as well as marketers who’ve had to adjust from typical “push”-style messaging. Blogging has made everyone a publisher, computer programs like ProTools allow regular citizens to produce professional-quality music and film, and message boards and social media mean consumers don’t just passively accept advertisements that tell them what they want.
•We drive into the future using only our rear-view mirror. We march backwards into the future
McLuhan was fascinated by the idea that humans essentially lived in the past, devising solutions for yesterday’s problems. This shadow-chasing certainly plays out in the house of advertising, which is built on the foundation of ever-shifting media ground. Think you’ve identified cool? That means it’s not cool anymore. Still wrapping your head around social media? By the time you do, it won’t be about Facebook and Twitter anymore. (Source: http://tinyurl.com/3cevoy4 )
David will be working with thought leaders in and outside the university to contemplate twenty first century opportunities and alternatives for the McLuhan Program. Given his background in technology and culture, and personal connection with McLuhan, he is the ideal candidate to help develop plans for the Program’s future.
David developed a strong personal and professional relationship with McLuhan in the 1970s as his doctoral student, as an assistant teacher with him, as neighbours at Wychwood Park, and later, as business advisors.
McLuhan is recognized as the first visionary of the cultural and information age, who coined the phrase, “The medium is the message,” “The Global Village,” and many others. He became famous around the world for his work in media theory and communications, and his theories remains highly relevant even today.
For the Fellowship, Nostbakken is asking several thought leaders a series of questions including: What matters in the 21st century around which the McLuhan Program should reposition itself? What approach should we take in the digital age? Who should our partners be within and outside the academic community?
“I hope to support changes by gaining invaluable insight through interviews, discussions and roundtables. They will help us imagine what the McLuhan Program could be for the 21st century,” David says, “as we seek advice, commitments and partnerships.”
Having a teacher-student rapport, and later a working relationship with the University of Toronto’s inspirational intellectual force, David says Marshall’s influence had a profound impact on him and the way he perceives the world.
“He taught me the importance of language and poetic resonance in unlocking new perception and deeper understanding,” says Nostbakken. McLuhan was driven less by career aspirations and more by the desire to know. “This passion for insight and understanding, a kind of quest for truth, rubbed off on those of us who worked with him.”
With a BA in Philosophy and English completed at the University of Saskatchewan, a Masters in Education at University of Toronto, Nostbakken’s PhD thesis was undertaken with the guidance of McLuhan on cultural influences of electronic media.
David says society didn’t pay attention to print until we had television, and the way it has shaped the way we think and act. Further, he says we must understand how important it is to study how technology and culture intersects with other aspects of our lives.
“He rose to prominence in the mid-twentieth century when he explored the impact of print technology which was by then giving way to electronic media including television. While he anticipated the digital global village of our current times, he has left it to us to explore our rapidly changing sphere of the twenty-first century.”
McLuhan’s influence is apparent, as David launched a number of media enterprises and platforms including Vision TV in Canada, WETV International, China Green Channel International, Ecology Global Network, and a number of not-for-profit enterprises including Power of Peace Network with UNESCO and as a founding Director of Digital Opportunity Trust.
David is President of N&N Inc. http://nostbakken.ca/ , a media and communications consulting firm. He serves on a number of boards and splits his time between Toronto and Ottawa, where he teaches strategic communication in social entrepreneurship at Carleton University.
“There are a few things more important than who we are culturally. We now have the technology to discover who we are around the world,” says Nostbakken. In essence, we need to understand our cultural realities worldwide by ensuring that we explore and employ the technological means to do so. (Source: http://tinyurl.com/o3huub7 )
The Coach House
Pearlman is a musical genius, but one who works in the background, creating and teaching the craft as producer, songwriter, creator, manager, poet, theorist, and former record company executive for many famous bands — such as Blue Oyster Cult, The Clash, and Black Sabbath.
He is also founding Vice President of emusic.com — one of the first sites to sell music in the MP3 format, beginning in 1998. In the late 1990s, this was a subscription store for download-to-own online music and audiobooks.
The musical icon is well known internationally as being responsible for inventing many musical trends over the last 30 years, including new genres known as Heavy Metal, Occult Rock, Goth, Punk, and New Wave music.
Pearlman founded, has written for, and produced or co-produced, many LPs that have become groundbreaking albums. In all formats, his recordings have sold an incredible 40 million copies.
Described by the Billboard Producer’s Directory as “the Hunter Thompson of rock, a gonzo producer of searing intellect and vast vision,” Sandy is a musical visionary.
Famous around the world for his innovative ideas and ensuing success, he was portrayed by acclaimed actor Christopher Walken in Saturday Night Live’s parody skit on the making of “The Reaper” (which Pearlman produced for Blue Oyster Cult).
Currently the Dean’s Professor for Interdisciplinary Innovation at the University Toronto, Pearlman was recently the Schulich Distinguished Professor Chair at the Schulich School of Music at McGill University, a Woodrow Wilson Fellow in the History of Ideas at Brandeis, and a New School Fellow in Sociology and Anthropology.
Over the last few years, at McGill and UofT, Pearlman has taught and created, often in collaboration with Dean Don McLean of McGill, and currently, at the University of Toronto, many “provocative” courses distributed amongst the Music, English, Religious Studies, Law and Management Faculties.
Pearlman says he would describe himself as a “relentless brainstormer on the Future of Media in general, and, the ever tightening embrace of Music by Technology and Technology by Music in particular.”
While at the McLuhan Coach House Institute, he plans to give a seminar on Monday, December 1, 5:00-7:00 pm at the Coach House. He is also scheduled to be giving a public lecture on Wednesday, December 3 at 140 St. George Street, Room 538, from 4:30 to 6:00 pm. (Source: http://tinyurl.com/o3huub7 )
Sandy Pearlman’s credits read like a who’s who of rock radio. A former Woodrow Wilson Fellow in the History of Ideas, the Billboard Producer Directory called Sandy the “Hunter Thompson of rock, a gonzo producer of searing intellect and vast vision.” As producer and writer for the Blue Oyster Cult, Sandy helped establish the genre of Heavy Metal. (He was one of the founders of Rock Criticism, and literally was the first to use the phrase “Heavy Metal” as it applied to music during his sojourn at Crawdaddy magazine.) BOC recorded and Sandy produced such classics as “Don’t Fear the Reaper, “ “Burning For You,” “Astronomy” (covered by Metallica) and “The Red and The Black” (covered by the legendary Minutemen). (Sandy was even portrayed by Christopher Walken in a Saturday Night Live parody skit of the making of “Reaper.”) He produced the classic second record by The Clash, Give ‘em Enough Rope, along with what was arguably the first “punk” record, The Dictators’ Go Girl Crazy. Sandy worked with the legendary Pavlov’s Dog, who anticipated the goth movement by more than ten years as well as the leaders of LA’s Paisley Underground, The Dream Syndicate. He has collaborated with the likes of Patti Smith (who co-wrote various BOC songs), Phil Manzanera and Andrew Mackay of Roxy Music, Bill Bruford, etc. In recognition of his work, Sandy has received 17 Gold and Platinum records. ( http://tinyurl.com/ko3g89a )
Extended Call for Papers: The 16th Annual Convention of the Media Ecology Association – Denver, CO, June 11-14, 2015
Metropolitan State University of Denver, Auraria Campus, Denver, Colorado
The Sixteenth Annual Convention of the Media Ecology Association
Kaleidoscope of Media and Community
Call for Papers DEADLINE EXTENDED
Thursday, June 11 – Sunday, June 14, 2015
Metropolitan State University of Denver
KEYNOTE SPEAKER is Nicolas Carr influential author and thinker on culture and technology. His writing includes The Shallows (NY Times bestseller), The Big Switch, Does IT matter, and The Glass Cage. Finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. http://www.nicholascarr.com
Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU Denver) is proud to host the 16th Annual Convention of the Media Ecology Association. MSU Denver is Colorado’s land grant university and educates the most diverse student body of any institution in the state. The University is an epicenter for urban impact, transforming lives, communities and higher education. It is with this perspective of dynamic diversity, transformation, and community engagement that we aim to explore the concept of “Kaleidoscope of Media and Community” as the convention theme.
The term “kaleidoscope” means the observation of beautiful forms. When we look through a kaleidoscope, we see a multitude of shapes, colors, and textures combine to create beautiful patterns. . With every turn of the kaleidoscope, the patterns shift and change, yet still combine to create a whole image. As abolitionist and clergyman Henry Ward Beecher said, “Our days are a kaleidoscope. Every instant a change takes place in the contents. New harmonies, new contrasts, new combinations of every sort. The most familiar people stand each moment in some new relation to each other, to their work, to surrounding objects. The most tranquil house, with the most serene inhabitants, living upon the utmost regularity of system, is yet exemplifying infinite diversities.” This conference looks at the recursive relationships of media and community as a pattern of continuously shifting, adapting parts combining in an infinite array of possibilities within mediated environments.
The field of Media Ecology is multi-disciplinary in nature, bringing together a broad collection of specialties, perspectives and expertise. This year’s theme of community offers the possibility to think about communities as part of a media’s ecology and its technologies. Community opens our discourse to human interaction that is face-to-face, urban, rural, central, remote, online, hybrid, historical, fictional, human, animal, functional, dysfunctional, young, old, diverse, educated, oral, literate, digital and linked to the technology and media in its environment.
The 16th Annual Convention of the Media Ecology Association invites papers, panels, workshop sessions, short film and video works, and creative projects that explore the convention theme. Submissions on any topic of interest to Media Ecology are also encouraged. Authors who want their papers considered for the Top Paper or Top Student Paper award must indicate this on their submissions. All submissions will be acknowledged.
The convention site at MSU Denver is located in the heart of downtown Denver on the Auraria Campus. There is a wide range of hotels, restaurants, and entertainment options within easy walking or biking distance from campus. Rental bicycles are readily available through the city’s program. Discounted rooms will be available at our state of the art on-campus, student-run hotel, the SpringHill Suites at Marriott. An excursion to the mountains is planned for Friday evening. Additional information about lodging, logistics, and events will be forthcoming.
Guidelines for Submission
For Manuscripts (for MEA award submissions):
- Manuscripts should be 4,000-6,000 words (approximately 15 to 25 double-spaced pages).
- Include a cover page (or e-submission page) with your academic or professional affiliation and other contact information.
- Include a 150 word abstract, with the title. Use APA, MLA, or Chicago style.
For Paper and Panel Proposals:
- Include title, abstract, and contact information with your proposal.
- Outline, as relevant, how your paper or panel will fit with the convention theme.
Submission Deadline: January 15, 2015
For more information on the Media Ecology Association and updated convention details, visit www.media-ecology.org.
Technoculture And Human Relationships June 19, 2014
This one is an academic submission — a review of literature — to analyse the effects of technoculture in the new mediated society. – Srirekha Chakravarty
This literature review follows the critical theory of Simon Cooper who follows in the tradition of Heidegger, to posit that it is possible to say both ‘yes’ and a ‘no’ to technology (Cooper, 2002).
In his book Technoculture and Critical Theory: In the Service of the Machine, Cooper theorizes about the hesitation most of us feel towards technological progress; and the imposing nature of technology in recreating social and cultural meanings.
Cooper theorizes that in technoculture, while we welcome the social and cultural transformation, we may set limits on technological mediation (Cooper, 2002).
“New media transforms all culture and cultural theory into an ‘open source.’ This opening up of cultural techniques, conventions, forms, and concepts is ultimately the most promising cultural effect of computerization”- Lev Manovich, The Language of New Media (Manovich, 2001). The urgency and indeed the overbearing nature of new media technology was elucidated to rather controversial reactions by Marshall McLuhan, who set off the futuristic wheels of understanding the irrevocable relationship between man and machine way back in the 1960s. McLuhan’s practical yet paradoxically deterministic approach to technology and indeed his uncanny acceptance of its effects on human society is reflected in the McLuhanism:
“The most human thing about us is technology” (McLuhan, 1974). The unprecedented developments in Internet-enabled information and digital communication technologies beginning in the early 2000’s, and the consequent transformation of society deepened the roots of technoculture to organically branch out into digital culture and the more punkish cyberculture.
Theorists who were still wrapping up debates on early technoculture – including the brand professed by McLuhan in the 1960s and later vilified by Neil Postman in the early 1990s – found themselves grappling with the way society, culture and technology were radically redefining each other.
Technoculture has been adopted as a construct of the new mediated world since the Internet was opened up for public use in the early 1990s, and spread its roots wider with digitization of information and communication technology over the past decade. The constantly evolving communications technology is a critical element of that culture, where, as Jean Baudrillard (Baudrillard, 1983) said in the context of the television, “our own body and the whole surrounding universe become a control screen.”
Technoculture refers simultaneously to the cultural dimensions of technology and to the technological dimensions of culture (Vannini, 2009).
Beginning with the 1990s, the confluence of computers and communication technologies where it is no longer about computers or laptops but about information appliances, interaction with technology has become as much about what people feel as it is about what they do (John McCarthy, 2004).
There is healthy interest in academia that is viewing technoculture as a contemporary reality – one that exists in a “continuous state of flux” whose transformations have been driven by human inventions (Kozinets, 2010).
And while some skeptics foresee a world inhabited by cyborgs (Haraway, 1991)enslaved by technology, there are others who see no boundaries between technology and culture in a world of cybernatics, bionics and interactive cyberspace (Gibson, 1984). The debate between technology and culture may then seem outdated because technoculture is seen as a “hybridization” of both (Berger, 1996).
The dynamic relationship between technology and culture then makes it necessary to not only keep up with new communicational vocabulary such as ‘googling’, ‘facebooking’, ‘twittering’, ‘texting’ ‘radio blogging’, ‘gaming’, etc., but also to understand the survivability of traditional local cultures against the forces of technology.
While McLuhan himself was never overtly opposed to a technology infused culture, his protégé, Neil Postman (Postman, 1993) took a critical stance on a culture that was becoming more pervasive than pop culture. This review then is a pertinent exercise in analyzing from a socio-techno-cultural perspective, what it means to live in a digital age; and understanding in that context, whether Neil Postman’s antithetical view that culture always pays a price for technology, (Postman, 1998) really holds out.
Advent of technoculture
The advent of technoculture in human society may be traced back to the evolution of communications from the oral tradition to a written one and later to print, to the current day technological breakthrough with computers and mobile phones with broadband capacity.
Given the historical perspective, “technoculture” would map the technologically saturated worlds of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries (Lovlie, 2006).
Welcome to technoculture
Taking a somewhat romanticized view, Phillip Vannini and his colleagues (Vannini, 2009) believe technoculture resides in “old docks, in toy stores, in the hobbyist’s toolbox, and in the refrigerator as much as it resides in the cathodes of an electronic tube or in the chips of a personal computer.”
A clinical view suggests that as communities are increasingly finding their common ground in cyberspace rather than on terra firma (Mitchell, 1996),real world communities are more homogenized and becoming part of a “big, one-world conversation” (Robins, 1999).
What William J. Mitchell talks about is a virtual world where humans will exist as “disembodied and fragmented subjects, freed from the constraints of physical space”. He declares that the new technologically-mediated world will be a post-geographical world where humans effectively will put an end to the “tyranny of distance”.
Mitchell goes so far as to dream up a technocultural utopia of a virtual ‘transparent society’ inhabited by mutually sympathetic persons.
On a more pragmatic note, what is apparently shaping social reality is the idea that technology and culture are no longer mutually exclusive but inseparably linked in a world mediated by Internet and all the devices that allow access to it (Gibson, 1984). Read the rest of this essay and its list of References at http://tinyurl.com/pd3ot3p .